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A Better Web Experience

Firefox 1.5 has an intuitive interface and blocks viruses, spyware, and popup ads. It delivers Web pages faster than ever. And it?s easy to install and import your favorites. Packed with useful features like tabbed browsing, Live Bookmarks, and an integrated Search bar, Firefox will change the way you experience the Web, for the better.

Faster Browsing

Enjoy quick page loading as you navigate back and forward in a browsing session. Improvements to the engine that powers Firefox deliver more accurate display of complex Web sites, support for new Web standards, and better overall performance.

Automatic Updates

The new Software Update feature makes it easy to get the latest security and feature updates to Firefox. Firefox automatically downloads these small updates in the background and prompts you when they are ready to be installed.

Tabbed Browsing

Use tabbed browsing to open multiple Web pages in a single browser window, and quickly flip back and forth. Drag and drop open tabs to keep related pages together.


Firefox 1.5 delivers easier navigation for everyone, including those who are visually or motor-impaired. Firefox is the first browser to support DHTML accessibility, which, when enabled by Web authors, allows rich Web applications to be read aloud. Users may navigate with keystrokes rather than mouse clicks, reducing the tabbing required to navigate documents such as spreadsheets. Firefox 1.5 (Windows version) is also the first browser to meet US federal government requirements that software be easily accessible to users with physical impairments.

Improved Pop-up Blocking

Firefox?s built-in pop-up blocker has been enhanced to block more unwanted pop-up and pop-under ads.

Clear Private Data

Protect your privacy with the new Clear Private Data tool. With a single click, you can delete all personal data, including browsing history, cookies, Web form entries and passwords.

Integrated Search

Tap into the power of the Web?s most popular search engines with the built-in Search bar, and easily add new engines.

Stronger Security

Firefox keeps you more secure when you?re browsing the Web, closing the door on spyware, worms, and viruses. The Firefox community of developers and security experts works around the clock to monitor security issues and release updates to better protect you.

Firefox EN

Mozilla Firefox From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Firefox" redirects here. For other uses, see Firefox (disambiguation). Mozilla Firefox Mozilla Firefox running under Windows XP displaying the Wikipedia main page Maintainer: Mozilla Foundation/Mozilla Corporation Stable release: (August 2, 2006) [+/-] Preview release: 2.0b2 (August 31, 2006) [+/-] OS: Cross-platform Use: Web browser License: MPL, MPL/GPL/LGPL tri-license Website: Mozilla Firefox is a free, open source, cross-platform, graphical web browser developed by the Mozilla Corporation and hundreds of volunteers.[1] Beginning as a fork of the browser component (Navigator) of the Mozilla Application Suite, Firefox has since become the Mozilla Foundation's main development focus (along with the Thunderbird mail and news client), replacing the Mozilla Suite as the foundation's official main software release. Before the November 9, 2004 1.0 release, Firefox had already gained acclaim from numerous media outlets, including Forbes[2] and the Wall Street Journal.[3] With over 25 million downloads in the 99 days after the initial 1.0 release, Firefox became one of the most downloaded free and open source applications, especially among home users.[4] On October 19, 2005, Firefox had its 100 millionth download, less than 1 year (just 344 days) after the release of version 1.0 (see Download count below). Firefox 1.5 was released on November 29, 2005, with more than 2 million downloads within the first 36 hours.[5] Firefox hit 200 million downloads in August 2006 according to the spreadfirefox website[6]. Firefox 2.0 is due for release on October 24, 2006 [7]. Firefox includes an integrated pop-up blocker, tabbed browsing, live bookmarks, support for open standards, a skinnable interface and an extension mechanism for adding functionality. Firefox has attracted attention as an alternative to other browsers such as Microsoft Internet Explorer and Apple Safari, which are included as standard browsers with versions of Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X, respectively. As of July 2006, estimates suggest that Firefox's usage share is around 12% of overall browser usage (see market adoption below), with its highest usage in Germany (about 39% as of July 2006).[8] Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Naming 1.2 Branding and visual identity 1.3 Release history 2 Future development 2.1 Version 2.0 2.2 Version 3.0 3 Features 4 Criticisms 4.1 Startup time 4.2 Memory use 4.3 Webpage rendition 4.4 Windows installer support 5 Market adoption 5.1 Usage share 5.2 Download count 5.3 Spread Firefox campaigns 5.4 Industry adoption 5.5 Institutional adoption 5.6 Portable versions of Firefox 5.7 Response from the competition 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 Books 9 See also 10 External links [edit] History For more details on this topic, see History of Mozilla Firefox. About Main article History Features Criticisms Community and Customization Spread Firefox Extensions (Main category) Custom Distributions Portable Edition Torpark Madfox Swiftfox This box: view ? talk ? edit Dave Hyatt and Blake Ross began working on the Firefox project as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project. They believed that the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser. To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a pared-down browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. Mozilla Firefox retains the cross-platform nature of the original Mozilla browser by using the XUL user interface markup language. Through Firefox's support of XUL, users may extend their browser's capabilities by applying themes and extensions. Initially, these add-ons raised security concerns, so with the release of Firefox 0.9, the Mozilla Foundation opened Mozilla Update, a website containing themes and extensions "approved" as not harmful. The Mozilla Foundation intended to make the Mozilla Suite obsolete and to replace it with Firefox. On April 12, 2006, the Foundation announced that official releases of Mozilla would cease with version 1.7.13.[9] The Foundation continues to support the 1.7.x branch because of its continued use by many corporate users, and because producers of other software continue to include the product. The Mozilla community (as opposed to the Foundation) continues to release new versions of the suite using the product name SeaMonkey to avoid any possible confusion with the original Mozilla Suite. [edit] Naming The project which became Firefox started as an experimental branch of the Mozilla Suite called m/b (or mozilla/browser). When sufficiently developed, binaries for public testing appeared in September 2002 under the name Phoenix. The Phoenix name survived until April 14, 2003, when it changed because of trademark issues with the BIOS manufacturer, Phoenix Technologies (who produce a BIOS-based browser called Phoenix FirstWare Connect). The new name, Firebird, provoked mixed reactions, particularly since the free database software Firebird uses the same name. In late April, following an apparent name change to Firebird browser for a few hours, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser should always bear the name Mozilla Firebird in order to avoid confusion with the Firebird database server. However, continuing pressure from the FLOSS community forced another change, and on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox (or Firefox for short). The Mozilla Foundation chose the name "Firefox" for its similarity to "Firebird" but also for its uniqueness in the computing industry. To avoid any potential further name changes, the Mozilla Foundation began the process of registering Firefox as a trademark with the United States Patent and Trademark Office in December 2003.[10] As "Firefox" already existed as a registered trademark in the United Kingdom, the Mozilla Foundation licensed the name from the trademark's owner. [edit] Branding and visual identity Various logos used during the development of FirefoxThe adoption of a new visual identity marks one of Firefox's most visible enhancements from its previous versions. Some people have noted that free software frequently suffers from poor icon and user interface design and from a lack of a strong visual identity. Such opinion held that the early releases of Firefox sported "reasonable" visual designs but did not regard them as of a standard equivalent to many "professionally" released software packages. The release of Firefox 0.8 in February 2004 saw the introduction of new branding efforts, including new icons. Jon Hicks designed the icon for Firefox 0.8 and up. The logo depicts a stylized fox, since the Red Panda (to which the term "Firefox" originally referred [11]) did not "conjure up the right imagery" for Hicks.[12] The specific logo won selection because it makes an impression while still not "shouting" with overdone artwork. The Firefox icon functions as a trademark used to designate the official Mozilla build of the Firefox software. Although Firefox uses open source core software, free licensing does not extend to the artwork. For this reason, software distributors who distribute patched or modified versions of Firefox cannot use the Firefox icon. However, versions based on the unmodified source code may be allowed[13]. [edit] Release history New options window from Firefox 1.5Firefox has developed considerably since its first release as Phoenix on September 23, 2002. Pre-1.0 releases suffered many issues with extensions, as the code for handling them changed from version to version. Throughout its development, Firefox versions have had internal codenames. These have a basis in real locations, with codenames such as Three Kings, Royal Oak, One Tree Hill, Mission Bay, and Greenlane all referencing suburbs in Auckland, New Zealand, and the name Whangamata coming from a small seaside town on the Coromandel Peninsula, southeast of Auckland in New Zealand. Ben Goodger, the lead developer of Firefox, who grew up in Auckland, chose these codenames. The other codenames included in the Firefox roadmap derive from an actual roadmap of a journey through California to Phoenix, Arizona, United States.[14] Several builds codenamed "Deer Park" were released in 2005. According to Goodger, "Deer Park is not Deer Park, Victoria, but just a symbolic name. I was riding LIRR a few weeks ago and saw the name go by and I thought it sounded nice." Therefore, this name probably references Deer Park, New York, a CDP on Long Island, United States. "Deer Park" was originally destined to become Firefox 1.1. However, Mozilla Foundation decided to change the version number of the next major release from "1.1" to "1.5", since it contained more new features than originally planned. In an attempt to dissuade end-users from downloading the preview versions, "Deer Park" versions do not use the standard Mozilla Firefox branding. As of the release of Firefox on March 8, 2006, Deer Park 1.6a1 is the only 64-bit version of Firefox for Windows, though it is still in alpha and is quite buggy. On November 29, 2005, Firefox 1.5 was officially released. Some of the changes: An improved Software Update System that will ease distribution of important security patches and help keep users up-to-date.[15] Firefox supports a subset of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), but not any of the official profiles (Tiny, Basic, Full). This makes Firefox the second major browser to support some form of SVG natively (Opera 8.0, released on April 19, 2005 supported most of the SVG 1.1 Tiny Specification). See Firefox 1.5's SVG status page. Support for the WHATWG's canvas HTML element. A new, reorganized options dialog box for changing settings of the browser (similar to preferences windows in Mac OS X). A "Clear Private Data" action to allow a person to clear their privacy related information without manually clicking the "Clear All" button. Users will have the option of clearing all privacy-related settings simply by exiting the browser or by using a keyboard shortcut, depending on their settings. Gecko 1.8, an updated version of Firefox's rendering engine Firefox 1.5 also includes a backlog of bug fixes that were fixed between the 0.9 and the 1.0 release which were previously unavailable due to branching from the trunk around the 0.9 release. For a history of each release version, see the Mozilla Firefox Release Notes. [edit] Future development This article or section contains information about beta software currently in development. The content may change dramatically as the software development progresses. According to the roadmap, future Firefox development will include version 2.0 and version 3.0. Development for version 2.0 will occur on the Gecko 1.8 branch from which version 1.5 was released, with the release starting the Gecko 1.8.1 branch, while development on version 3.0, which will be based on Gecko 1.9, occurs simultaneously on the Mozilla trunk. Mozilla is developing versions 2.0 and 3.0 simultaneously in order to ship front-end innovation in version 2.0 built on a more stable back-end, while completing major architectural and user interface changes for version 3.0.[16] Goals for Firefox include changes to the tabbed browsing environment, enhancements to the extensions manager, enhancements to the GUI,[17] improvements to the find, search and software update engines; a greater level of accessibility, session and download restore, and new improved Anti-phishing features.[18] Newer versions of Firefox will use Cairo as the rendering layer instead of GDI+. [19] Mozilla Firefox 1.5 and future releases of Camino will also include the Java Embedding plugin,[20] which allow Mac OS X users to run Java applets with the latest 1.4 and 5.0 versions of Java (the default Java software shipped by Apple is not compatible with any browser, except its own Safari). [edit] Version 2.0 Wikipedia with the Firefox 2.0 Beta 2 release using Ubuntu Linux 6.06 demonstrating the new visually refreshed themeThe code name for Mozilla Firefox 2.0 was Bon Echo, but for the official Beta 1 release it was branded with the Firefox 2 name. It still retains the Bon Echo name for the unofficial builds. "Bon Echo", like other Firefox development names, is the name of a public park, Bon Echo Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada.[21] The first alpha version (2.0a1) was released on March 21, 2006, the second alpha version (2.0a2) was released on May 12, 2006,[22] and the third alpha version (2.0a3) was released on May 27, 2006.[23] The first beta version (2.0b1) was released on July 12, 2006,[24] and the second beta (2.0b2) shipped on August 31, 2006.[25] The first release candidate is scheduled to be released on September 19, 2006, and may become the final release if there are no new bugs found.[7] The alpha and beta releases are aimed primarily at the developer and testing community as there are still some bugs present. Some of the new features that the Mozilla Firefox 2 browser will bring are: New Windows installer using the Nullsoft Scriptable Install System (NSIS) New anti-phishing features There are now several hidden options for how the tabs are displayed, and the close behaviour is slightly different A History of recently closed tabs and the ability to "Undo" closed tabs Automatic restoration of the user's browsing session if there is a crash New default theme with new icons and a new tab bar design.[26] Inline spell checking in text boxes and the ability to search in these areas. Search suggestions now appear in the search box auto-complete for Google and Yahoo! New search service that supports Sherlock and OpenSearch engines Combining the extensions and themes managers into an "Add-ons" manager, updating it to provide enhanced security and to allow for easier localization of extensions. New search plugin manager for removing and re-ordering search engines Improved support for previewing and subscribing to Web feeds (see RSS) New microsummaries feature for bookmarks Support for scalable vector graphics (SVG) text using svg:textPath Client-side session and persistent storage [edit] Version 3.0 Mozilla Firefox (codename Minefield), version 3.0a1 (Alpha) running on Windows XPThe development name for Mozilla Firefox 3.0 is Gran Paradiso.[27] The precursory releases are currently codenamed "Minefield", as this is the name of the trunk releases. "Gran Paradiso", like other Firefox development names, is an actual place. "Gran Paradiso" is the name of a national park in Italy. When Firefox 3.0 branches, it will adopt the "Gran Paradiso" codename. The release timeframe for Firefox 3.0 is first quarter 2007.[28] The largest change for Firefox 3 will be the implementation of Gecko 1.9, an updated layout engine. It will also include several new features and ones that were bumped from Firefox 2, such as the overhauled Places system for storing bookmarks and history in an SQL backend.[29] Due to Microsoft's decision to end support for Windows 98 and Windows Me on July 11, 2006, and because Cairo does not support Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, and Windows NT 4.0, Firefox 3.0 will not run on those operating systems.[30][31] Unlike previous versions, Firefox 3 on Mac OS X will be written in Cocoa. [edit] Features Main article: Features of Mozilla Firefox Firefox running on Mac OS X with the MidnightFox themeThe developers of Firefox aim to produce a browser that "just works" for most casual users. User created Extensions and plugins can be installed to integrate with Firefox giving a wide range of choice for the end-user. The main features included with Firefox are tabbed browsing, incremental find, Live bookmarking, a customizable download manager and a built-in Search toolbar. The user can customise their version of Firefox with downloadable extensions, a variety of different themes and skins, and many hidden preferences that are easily accessible to the advanced user. Mozilla Firefox claims support for many software standards, including but not restricted to: HTML, XML, XHTML, CSS, ECMAScript (JavaScript), DOM, MathML, DTD, XSL, XPath and PNG images with variable transparency. Firefox release builds do not yet pass the Acid2 standards-compliance test. However, there are developmental versions of Firefox that currently pass the Acid2 test, and Firefox 3 is expected to pass Acid2.[32] Mozilla Firefox is a multi-platform browser, providing support for various versions of Microsoft Windows, including 98, 98SE, Me, NT 4.0, 2000, XP, and Server 2003. It also runs on Mac OS X, and the Linux-based operating systems using the X Window System. Although not officially released for certain operating systems, the freely available source code works for many other operating systems, including but not restricted to: FreeBSD [33], OS/2, Solaris, SkyOS, BeOS and more recently, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition [34]. Firefox also provides an environment in which web developers can use built in tools (from extensions). These include a Javascript Console, a DOM Inspector, Venkman JavaScript debugger, and an integrated development toolkit called Web Developer [35]. The fact that Firefox has fewer and less severe security vulnerabilities than Internet Explorer [36] is often cited as a reason to switch from Internet Explorer to Firefox for improved security. [37] [38] [39] [40] Firefox uses SSL/TLS to protect communications with web servers using strong cryptography. It also supports smartcards for secure login to web servers. It uses a sandbox security model and the developers use a "bug bounty" scheme, for finding fixes for some security and feature additions. [edit] Criticisms Main article: Criticisms of Mozilla Firefox [edit] Startup time Some note that Firefox takes longer to launch than other browsers such as Internet Explorer or Opera on Windows. Other Gecko-based browsers such as K-Meleon, which use platform-native user interface implementations, generally run faster than Firefox. IE also launches slightly faster than Firefox on Microsoft Windows since many of its components are built into Windows and are loaded at startup.[41] On Microsoft Windows, this can be addressed by using the open-source FFPreloader Utility.[42] [edit] Memory use Some users complain that Firefox uses more memory than other browsers. This has been reported as memory leaks.[43] Mozilla developers claim it is sometimes at least partially an effect of the fast backwards and forwards (FastBack) feature.[44] Other known causes of memory problems are misbehaving extensions, such as Google Toolbar and Adblock[45]. [edit] Webpage rendition Users switching from Internet Explorer sometimes find that certain websites do not render as expected in Firefox. This, however, is rarely a Firefox-specific problem and is usually caused by the respective websites using code that does not adhere to W3C standards ? such as code specific to Internet Explorer, utilizing ActiveX controls or VBScript scripts, which are both proprietary Microsoft technologies and are not W3C standards. There is a Firefox extension called "IE Tab" that allows the Internet Explorer rendering engine to be embedded into Firefox on the Windows platform. This aims to solve rendering issues for those pages that use Microsoft specific technologies, but it puts the user at risk from vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer.[46] [edit] Windows installer support Mozilla Firefox does not provide an MSI package, although some third parties created one [citation needed]. Administrators who want to deploy Firefox on many Microsoft Windows computers at once would need an MSI installer to do it centrally, without having to manually install it on each computer. The absence of this feature makes it difficult to rapidly distribute the browser on large networks (as in a corporate setting), and is cited frequently as an obstacle to the wide adoption of the browser in professional workgroups.[47][48] This feature is currently planned for a future release.[49][50] [edit] Market adoption Firefox 2006 worldwide share Usage share of Mozilla Firefox over time A graph of Firefox 1.x cumulative downloads in millions[edit] Usage share Statistics reference: Usage share of web browsers Web-surfers have adopted Firefox rapidly, despite the dominance of Internet Explorer in the browser market. Internet Explorer has seen a steady decline of its usage share since Firefox's release. According to several sources (as listed in statistics reference), by July 2006, Firefox had around 12% of global usage share. Europe, according to a study released by the firm XiTi on 2006-06-16, generally had higher percentages of Firefox use, with an average of 20%.[51] [edit] Download count Cumulative downloads have increased in a near-linear fashion since the time Firefox 1.0 was released in November 2004 until July 2006. In other words, the download rate has remained fairly stable. None of the Mozilla Foundation's previous product releases experienced that kind of growth.[52] Downloads of Firefox 1.x since November 9, 2004 Date Number of days Downloads (millions) November 10, 2004 1 1[53] February 16, 2005 99 25[54] April 29, 2005 171 50[55] July 26, 2005 259 75[56] October 19, 2005 344 100[57] March 3, 2006 479 150[58] July 31, 2006 629 200[59] These download counts do not include downloads using software updates and downloads from third-party websites. The download counter is available as an RSS feed,[60] so that the Firefox download can be added on websites to keep track of the number of downloads in near-realtime. It should be noted that a download count is not a user count, as a single download can be installed over many machines, or one person can download the software multiple times. Assuming that Firefox users browse about as many pages as the average Internet user, Firefox users make up about 120 million of the Internet's one billion users.[61] [edit] Spread Firefox campaigns Main article: Spread Firefox The rapid adoption of Firefox apparently accelerated in part because of a series of aggressive marketing campaigns since 2004. For example, Blake Ross and Asa Dotzler organized a series of events dubbed "marketing week". On September 14, 2004, a marketing portal dubbed "Spread Firefox" (SFX) debuted along with the Firefox Preview Release, creating a centralized space for the discussion of various marketing techniques. The portal enhanced the "Get Firefox" button program, giving users "referrer points" as an incentive. The site lists the top 250 referrers. From time to time, the SFX team or SFX members launch marketing events organized at the Spread Firefox website. [edit] Industry adoption Since the pre-1.0 stages, several well-known websites and web applications, including Gmail, have supported (and in some cases, required) the use of Firefox. Since March 30, 2005, the Google search engine has utilized the link prefetching feature of Firefox for faster searching. Link prefetching involves a standards-compliant optimization technique that utilizes the browser's idle time to download or prefetch documents that the user might visit in the near future. Google, Inc. also recommends Firefox as the browser for its weblog service.[62] On May 18, 2005, eBay announced support for Firefox for its eBay Picture Manager.[63] Search engine companies including Google, Yahoo! and now also offer Firefox extensions for accessing their services, in addition to their original Internet Explorer add-ons. Google has released four Extensions for Firefox,[64] further affirming the company's interest in Firefox. Several commercialized versions of the Firefox browser have developed outside the not-for-profit Mozilla Foundation. The current version of Netscape, known as Netscape Browser or Netscape 8, combines the functionalities of Firefox and Internet Explorer. Flock plans to build enhancements for Firefox.[65] Firefox is used by the 3B browser, which browses the web as a 3D city of web sites or a 3D store. According to a CNET article published on May 12, 2005,[66] about 30,000 of IBM's staff (about 10% of the total) already use Firefox. IBM encourages its employees to use Firefox as the company's standard web browser; support is provided by the company's help desk staff. In December 2005, it was announced that Dell UK would start shipping the Firefox browser pre-installed on their PCs. [67] [edit] Institutional adoption During the FOSDEM 2005 conference, Tristan Nitot, the president of Mozilla Europe, said that he knew "a few companies" that had deployed the Firefox browser or the Thunderbird mail client across a million seats. Those companies remained reluctant to publicize the migration because of in-house concerns that this might damage their relationship with Microsoft.[68] The Networking Services and Information Technology department of the University of Chicago started to include both Firefox and Thunderbird in its connectivity package for all incoming students on the third quarter of 2005.[69] Yale University, Boston College, Virginia Commonwealth University, and Kansas State University have recently adopted Firefox as official web browsers across the campus network. Boston College encourages all students to switch from Internet Explorer to Firefox on all student dorm computers, citing increased usability and better security features. University of New Mexico and Elmira College have Firefox installed on their lab computers and recommends their students to use it, as opposed to Internet Explorer. Rutgers University and Penn State University have Firefox installed on lab computers in most of its branch campuses and some labs in State College. [edit] Portable versions of Firefox The logo and splash screen for the unofficial portable version of FirefoxMozilla Firefox - Portable Edition[70] (also known as Firefox Portable) is a repackaged version of Firefox designed to run from a USB flash drive, iPod, external hard drive, or other portable media. The newest version can be run live from a CD. It arose out of a mozillaZine thread in June of 2004. John T. Haller released the first packaged version and has led its further development. It includes a specialized launcher that adjusts extensions and themes to work as it is moved between different computers. There is also a portable version of Firefox available for Macintosh computers called Portable Firefox OS X.[71] Here is a full list of Firefox in portable app form: Firefox Portable for Microsoft Windows and Wine on Linux/Unix[70] Portable Firefox OS X for Mac OS X[71] Cross-platform Portable Firefox for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows[72] Firefox for U3 for U3 smart drives[73] X-Firefox as part of WinPenPack (in Italian only)[74] [edit] Response from the competition Despite Firefox's apparent gains on Internet Explorer, Microsoft's head of Australian operations, Steve Vamos, stated that he did not see Firefox as a threat and that there was not significant demand for the featureset of Firefox amongst Microsoft's users. Vamos stated that he himself never used it personally.[75] Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates has used Firefox, but he has commented "so much software gets downloaded all the time, but do people actually use it?"[76] However, according to a Microsoft SEC Filing on June 30, 2005, it acknowledged that browsers such as Mozilla are competitive threats to Internet Explorer: "Competitors such as Mozilla offer software that competes with the Internet Explorer Web browsing capabilities of our Windows operating system products."[77] In August 2006, Microsoft made an offer[78] which Mozilla accepted.[79] This offer will make Firefox run more ideally on Vista. [edit] Footnotes ^ Mozilla contributors list, ^ Forbes, September 29, 2004. ^ Wall Street Journal, September 16, 2004. Walter Mossberg wrote: "I suggest dumping Microsoft's Internet Explorer Web browser, which has a history of security breaches. I recommend instead Mozilla Firefox, which is free at It's not only more secure but also more modern and advanced, with tabbed browsing, which allows multiple pages to be open on one screen, and a better pop-up ad blocker than the belated one Microsoft recently added to IE." ^ Stross, New York Times. December 19, 2004. The article states that "With Firefox, open-source software moves from back-office obscurity to your home, and to your parents', too. (Your children in college are already using it.)" ^ Asa Dotzler - Firefox and more: more than two million ^ spreadfirefox ^ a b Mozilla Developer's Calendar. ^ Global usage share Mozilla Firefox has increased. ^ ^ Firefox trademark, USPTO ^ Mozilla Firefox - Brand Name Frequently Asked Questions. ^ Branding Firefox. John Hicks' weblog ^ Talk:History of Mozilla Firefox#Note about "Branding and visual identity" ^ Mozilla Firefox Roadmap (see also: Mozilla Firefox 1.0 Roadmap) ^ Ben Goodger discusses the Firefox update system (May 2, 2005). ^ 1.8 alpha 6 around the corner (December 26, 2004). Source: Asa Dotzler's weblog. ^ Firefox 2 Visual Update.. A page showing the various bits of visual update. ^ Mozilla Wiki.. A table that lists and links the intended features for Firefox 2. ^ Mozilla Cairo Vector Graphics.. A page describing the future usage of Cairo. ^ Mozilla to include Java Embedding plugin. MozillaZine. ^ [1] ^ Bon Echo Alpha 2 Milestone ^ Bon Echo Alpha 3 Milestone Released ^ Firefox 2 Beta 1 Milestone Released ^ Mozilla Firefox 2 Beta 2 Release Notes ^ Default Theme Update ^ [2] ^ Mozilla Release Roadmap. ^ ^ Firefox 3.0 will not support Windows 98 or ME ^ [3] ^ Firefox Passes Acid2. TechSpot Weblog. ^ FreshPort entry on Firefox. ^ Mozilla X86 website ^ Web Developer Site ^ Comparison of web browsers#Vulnerabilities Vulnerabilities. Comparison of web browser. ^ Time to Dump Internet Explorer. SecurityFocus. ^ CNET editors' reviewfor Mozilla Firefox. C|Net Reviews. ^ Are the Browser Wars Back?. Slate. ^ Switching from Internet Explorer to Mozilla Firefox. ^ ^ ^ Firefox 1.5: Not Ready For Prime Time? InternetWeek. ^ Bug 319262 - Significant memory leak. Bugzilla. ^ Problematic Extensions. MozillaZine Knowledge Base. ^ ^ ^,289483,sid14_gci1150208,00.html ^ ^ ^ ^ Firefox and more: the graphs (part 1). Asa Dotzler's weblog. ^ 1,000,000+ downloads on day 1 ^ firefox 25,000,000 ^ celebrating 50 million firefox downloads ^ Firefox Exceeds 75 million Downloads ^ firefox hits one hundred million downloads ^ 150 million and counting! ^ Firefox 200 Million Downloads - what it means ^ ^ Internet Usage Statistics. Internet World Stats. ^ Where can I upgrade my browser? Blogger Help. ^ eBay Picture Manager Enhancements. eBay. ^ ^ Round Two looks to launch enhanced Firefox. MozillaNews. ^ ^ Firefox shipping on Dell UK. ^ Firefox sneaks into the enterprise. ZDNet UK. ^ UChicago to Distribute Firefox and Thunderbird. Inside Aebrahim's Head. ^ a b ^ a b ^ ^ ^ ^ Microsoft: Firefox does not threaten IE's market share. ZDNet. ^ The assault on software giant Microsoft. BBC News. ^ Firefox a threat. MozillaZine. ^ ^ [edit] References Goodger, Ben (2004). Mozilla Firefox Development Charter. Retrieved on 2004-09-22. Hesseldahl, Arik, "Better Browser Now the Best", Forbes, 2004-09-29. Markham, Gervase, "Firefox Language Coverage", Hacking for Christ, 2004-11-30. Mossberg, Walt. "How to Protect Yourself From Vandals, Viruses If You Use Windows", Wall Street Journal, 2004-09-16. Schmidt, Jürgen, "Chrome-plated holes. Mozilla's security concept is not invincible", c't magazine, 2005-07-13. 14/2005, page 202. Stross, Randall, "The Fox Is in Microsoft's Henhouse (and Salivating)", New York Times, 2004-12-19. Weber, Tim, "The assault on software giant Microsoft", BBC News, 2005-05-09. [edit] Books Granneman, Scott (2005). Don't Click on the Blue E!: Switching to Firefox. O'Reilly. ISBN 0-596-00939-9. Hofmann, Chris; Marcia Knous, & John Hedtke (2005). Firefox and Thunderbird Garage. Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN 0-13-187004-1. McFarlane, Nigel (2005). Firefox Hacks. O'Reilly. ISBN 0-596-00928-3. Reyes, Mel (2005). Hacking Firefox : More Than 150 Hacks, Mods, and Customizations. Wiley. ISBN 0-7645-9650-0. Ross, Blake (2006). Firefox for Dummies. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-74899-4. Yeow, Cheah Chu (2005). Firefox Secrets: A Need-To-Know Guide. O'Reilly. ISBN 0-9752402-4-2. [edit] See also Free software Portal Flock Mozilla (from which the Firefox project descends) Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail application Mozilla Update Mozilla Foundation Mozilla Corporation Comparison of web browsers User Agent strings for Mozilla Firefox List of web browsers List of Firefox extensions IE Tab Netscape Navigator Criticisms of Mozilla Firefox Swiftfox [edit] External links Wikibooks has more on the topic of Mozilla FirefoxWikinews has news related to: MozillaWikimedia Commons has media related to: Mozilla FirefoxMozilla Firefox homepage ? For end-users. Mozilla Firefox project page ? For developers. Mozilla Firefox with Google Toolbar included Firefox Flicks SpreadFirefox Firefox section of the MozillaZine Knowledge Base Firefox Portable for Microsoft Windows and Wine on Linux/Unix Portable Firefox OS X for Mac OS X The Burning Edge ? Developments in nightly builds of Mozilla Firefox. Secunia advisories for Mozilla Firefox Mozilla "Deer Park" 64-bit Firefox-based web browser Firefox older versions - All of the old versions from version 0.8 to the latest one Optimized Firefox for Mac OS X - User-contributed optimized Firefox builds for Apple G4, G5, and Intel processors. Current web browsers Arachne | Camino | Firefox | Internet Explorer | K-Meleon | Konqueror | Maxthon | Netscape | OmniWeb | Opera | Safari | SeaMonkey | Shiira Retrieved from "" Categories: Upcoming software | Articles with unsourced statements | Free web browsers | Gopher Clients | Internet history | Mac OS web browsers | Mozilla Firefox | Windows web browsers | Web browsers Internet Explorer for UNIX From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Internet Explorer for Unix Internet Explorer 5 for Solaris Maintainer: Microsoft Stable release: 5.0 SP1 (2001) [+/-] Preview release: Discontinued (none) [+/-] OS: Solaris, HP-UX Use: Web browser License: Proprietary Internet Explorer for UNIX was a proprietary and freely available graphical web browser that was produced by Microsoft for use in the X Window System on Solaris or HP-UX. Contents [hide] 1 Development history 2 Versions 3 5.0 Readme highlights 4 Disappearance 5 See also 6 External links [edit] Development history May 29, 1996: it was reported that Steven Guggenheimer, product manager for Internet Explorer (IE), confirmed "We're looking into a Unix-based IE. We're talking with partners. We need to find the best strategy -- whether it's ourselves or others". It was further reported that Steve Ballmer, then executive vice president of Microsoft, had shown an interest earlier in the month for a Microsoft browser to run on Unix as part of the strategy to wage the browser wars: In pursuit of a larger share of the mammoth browser market, Microsoft has been dealing with PC and workstation makers to have its IE browser bundled with newly shipping hardware. Ballmer hinted, however, that not having a Unix browser was posing an obstacle to this OEM-based strategy to try and catch up with No. 1 browser maker Netscape Communications Corp., which holds some 85 percent of the worldwide browser market with its Navigator product line. "We might just have to get one of those," Ballmer said of a Unix-based browser. June 3, 1996: Microsoft contracted with Bristol Technology under the "Internet Explorer Source Code Porting Agreement" (IE Agreement) to develop a version of Bristol's porting application Wind/U to port IE for Windows to Unix. At this time Bristol also had a contract with Microsoft allowing it access to Windows source code from September 1994 to September 1997. July 29, 1996: it was officially announced that Microsoft would develop a native version of IE for "Solaris and other popular variants of UNIX" to be available "by the end of 1996" which would have "equivalent functionality as that provided in Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0", thus "delivering on its commitment to provide full-featured Web browser support on all major operating system platforms" as well as "supporting and promoting open standards, including HTML, ActiveX and Java". March, 1997: following a dispute which "arose between Microsoft and Bristol concerning each other?s performance of the 1996 IE Agreement" and likely also because of contract negotiations with Bristol to access Windows source code after September 1997 failing, Microsoft reversed course and decided to directly port the Windows version in-house using the MainWin XDE (eXtended Development Environment) application from Mainsoft, a competitor to Bristol Technology; Microsoft would later also use MainWin to port Windows Media Player and Outlook Express to Unix. Now well behind schedule, the 3.0 branch was apparently scrapped in favor of 4.0 (that was released for Windows half a year earlier), which used the new Trident rendering engine. Internet Explorer 4 for SolarisNovember 5, 1997: a beta of IE for Unix 4.0 was released for testing on Solaris. January 27, 1998: it was reported that IE 4.0 for Solaris was due in March. Tod Nielsen, general manager of Microsoft's developer relations group, joked that "he wanted to launch Internet Explorer 4.0 for Unix at the Ripley's Believe It or Not museum in San Francisco" because of skepticism from those who suspected IE for Unix was vaporware. It was further reported that versions for "HP-UX, IBM AIX, and Irix" were planned (note that at the time MainWin XDE 3.0 was only available for the "Solaris Sparc 2.51 platform", but MainWin XDE 2.1 was "available on Solaris Sparc 2.51, Solaris Intel 5.5.1, SunOS 4.1.4, Irix 5.3, Irix 6.2, HP UX 10.2 and IBM AIX 4.1.5.") March 4, 1998: IE 4.0 for Unix on Solaris released. Later that year a version for HP-UX was released. March 5, 1998: Microsoft reached a settlement with Bristol which "provided mutual releases for any claims arising out of the IE Agreement". 1999 IE 5.0 for Unix on Solaris and HP-UX released. 2001 IE 5.0 for Unix Service Pack 1 released for Solaris and HP-UX. [edit] Versions There are nine versions officially listed by Microsoft: 4.01 40-bit on Solaris 4.01 40-bit on HP-UX 4.01 128-bit on Solaris 4.01 128-bit on HP-UX 5.0 40-bit on Solaris 5.0 40-bit on HP-UX 5.0 128-bit on Solaris 5.0 128-bit on HP-UX 5.0 SP1 Beta 128-bit on Solaris However, archived copies of Microsoft's website indicate that Service Pack 1 was released (presumably in finished form) for both Solaris and HP-UX. It is not known why Microsoft omitted references to these from its official list; Microsoft only hosted 128-bit encryption SP1 patches, so it is likely that there are three other versions as well: 5.0 SP1 Beta 128-bit on HP-UX 5.0 SP1 128-bit on Solaris 5.0 SP1 128-bit on HP-UX [edit] 5.0 Readme highlights Notable items from the IE for Unix 5.0 Readme: "Internet Explorer 5 for UNIX supports most of the features and technologies of Internet Explorer for Windows, but also differs in some respects. For example, Internet Explorer for UNIX does not support downloadable ActiveX controls or browsing and organizing your local files and folders within the browser window. Other unsupported features include filters/transitions in CSS, the DHTML Editing component, and HTML Applications (HTAs). [...] Internet Explorer for UNIX offers some features not found on the Windows version as well, such as Emacs-style keyboard shortcuts and external program associations." Microsoft had a newsgroup named "microsoft.public.inetexplorer.unix" on its public news server "The User Agent String for Internet Explorer 5 is static except for the third field which depends on the Operating System and the processor you are using. Here are some common configurations and the user agent strings generated by Internet Explorer on these platforms:" Sparc 5, Solaris 2.5.1 Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.0; SunOS 5.5.1 sun4m; X11) Any Ultra, Solaris 2.5.1 Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.0; SunOS 5.5.1 sun4u; X11) Any Ultra, Solaris 2.6 Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.0; SunOS 5.6 sun4u; X11) HP 9000 C-180, HP-UX 10.20 Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.0; HP-UX B.10.20 9000/780; X11) HP 9000 K-250, HP-UX 10.20 Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.0; HP-UX B.10.20 9000/802; X11) [edit] Disappearance The homepage for IE for Unix was abruptly removed from Microsoft's website in the third quarter of 2002 without explanation, replaced with the terse message: "We sincerely apologize, but Internet Explorer technologies for UNIX are no longer available for download." It was noted however that while the homepage had been removed, the actual download page remained up for a time. The official reason given by Microsoft's PR firm was that "low customer demand for this download did not justify the resources required for continued development." [edit] See also List of web browsers Comparison of web browsers [edit] External links Microsoft leans toward a Unix platform version of its Internet Explorer browser - Dana Gardner writing for InfoWorld Electric (May 29, 1996) Best-of-Breed Browsers for Multiple Platforms - press release from Microsoft (July 29, 1996) Microsoft's Internet Explorer 4.0 for Solaris (Screenshot) - Robert McMillan writing for SunWorld (November 5, 1997) Microsoft says Unix browser is on schedule - Bob Trott writing for InfoWorld Electric (January 27, 1998) Microsoft launches Internet Explorer on Unix - press release from Mainsoft (March 4, 1998) Microsoft Files Opposition to Bristol's Motion for Preliminary Injunction - article from Tech Law Journal (September 30, 1998) Internet Explorer 5 for Solaris - README file included with IE5 for Solaris (February 2, 1999) Internet Explorer 5 for HP-UX - README file included with IE5 for HP-UX (March 17, 1999) Microsoft to port Internet Explorer technologies to Unix - press release from Mainsoft (August 14, 2000) Bristol Technology v. Microsoft - ruling by Janet C. Hall, Connecticut District Court judge (November 3, 2000) Tech Law Journal: Bristol Technology v. Microsoft - article from Tech Law Journal (February 21, 2001) Internet Explorer for UNIX Home Page - old version of webpage from Internet Archive (August 2, 2002) Internet Explorer for UNIX Discontinued - article from MozillaZine (September 19, 2002) Who killed IE for Unix? - Jim Lynch writing for ExtremeTech (October 3, 2002) How to determine which version of Internet Explorer is installed - Help and Support page on Microsoft's website (August 17, 2005) Retrieved from "" Netscape From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Netscape Type: Owned by AOL Founded: 1994 Headquarters: Dulles, Virginia (AOL's headquarters) Industry: Internet, Software, & Telecommunication Products: Internet suite, web browser, Internet service provider, web portal Website: Netscape, formerly Netscape Communications Corporation, was an American computer services company, best known for their web browser. The browser was once dominant in terms of usage share, but as a result of the browser wars, they lost much of their userbase in that area. As of July 2006, the usage share of Netscape browsers is under 1% and slowly falling. The company existed only from 1994 to 2003, latterly as a subsidiary of AOL, but the Netscape brand is still in use. Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Early years 1.2 Open sourcing 1.3 Acquisition by America Online 1.4 Disbanding of Netscape 1.5 Netscape today 2 Browser 2.1 Netscape Classic releases 2.1.1 Netscape Navigator (versions 1.0?4.08) 2.1.2 Netscape Communicator (versions 4.0?4.8) 2.2 Mozilla-based releases 2.2.1 Netscape 6 (versions 6.0?6.2.3) 2.2.2 Netscape (versions 7.0?7.2) 2.3 Mozilla Firefox-based releases 2.3.1 Netscape Browser (version 8.0+) 2.4 Release history 3 3.1 Criticisms 4 Netscape Internet Service 5 Product list 6 See also 7 References 8 External links [edit] History [edit] Early years The logo of Mosaic Communications Corporation and its browserThe company was founded as Mosaic Communications Corporation on April 4, 1994 by Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark, and was the first company to attempt to capitalize on the nascent World Wide Web. It released a web browser called Mosaic Netscape 0.9 on October 13, 1994. This browser was subsequently renamed Netscape Navigator, and the company took on the 'Netscape' name on November 14, 1994 [1] to avoid trademark ownership problems with NCSA, where the initial Netscape employees had previously created the NCSA Mosaic web browser. (The Mosaic Netscape web browser shared no code with NCSA Mosaic.) Netscape had a successful IPO on August 9, 1995. The stock was to be offered at $14 per share; a last-minute decision doubled the initial offering to $28 per share; the stock's value reached $75 on the first day of trading, which was nearly a record for a stock's first-day gain. The company's revenues doubled every quarter in 1995 [2]. One of Netscape's stated goals was to "level the playing field" among operating systems by providing a consistent web browsing experience across them. The Netscape web browser interface was identical on any computer. Netscape later experimented with prototypes of a web-based system which would allow a user to access and edit his files anywhere across a network, no matter what computer or operating system he happened to be using. This did not escape the attention of Microsoft, which viewed the commoditization of operating systems as a direct threat to its bottom line. Several Microsoft executives are reported to have visited the Netscape campus in June 1995 to propose dividing the market, which would have allowed Microsoft to produce web browser software on Windows while leaving other operating systems to Netscape. [3] Netscape refused. Microsoft released version 1.0 of Internet Explorer as a part of the Windows 95 Plus Pack add-on. According to former Spyglass developer Eric Sink, Internet Explorer was based not on NCSA Mosaic as commonly believed, but on a version of Mosaic developed at Spyglass. [4] Microsoft quickly released several successive versions of Internet Explorer, bundling them with Windows, never charging for them, financing their development and marketing with revenues from other areas of the company. This period of time became known as the browser wars, in which Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer added many new features (not always working correctly) and went through many version numbers (not always in a logical fashion) in attempts to outdo each other. But Internet Explorer had the upper hand, as the amount of manpower and capital dedicated to it eventually surpassed the resources available in Netscape's entire business. By version 3.0, IE was roughly a feature-for-feature equivalent of Netscape Communicator, and by version 4.0, it was generally considered to be more stable. Microsoft also targeted other Netscape products with free workalikes, such as the Internet Information Server (IIS), a web server which was bundled with Windows NT. Netscape could not compete with this strategy. Meanwhile, it faced increasing criticism for the bugs in its products; critics claimed that the company suffered from 'featuritis' ? putting a higher priority on adding new features than on making them work properly. The tide of public opinion, having once lauded Netscape as the David to Microsoft's Goliath, steadily turned negative, especially when Netscape experienced its first bad quarter at the end of 1997 and underwent a large round of layoffs in January 1998. [edit] Open sourcing January 1998 was also the month that Netscape started the open source Mozilla project. Knowing that Internet Explorer had become by far the dominant web browser in the marketplace, Netscape publicly released the source code of Netscape Communicator 4.0 in the hopes that it would become a popular open source project. It placed this code under the Netscape Public License, which was similar to the GNU General Public License but allowed Netscape to continue to publish proprietary work containing the publicly-released code. However, after having released the Communicator 4.0 code this way, Netscape proceeded to work on Communicator 4.5 which was focused on improving email and enterprise functionality. It eventually became clear that the Communicator 4.0 browser was too difficult to develop on and open source development was halted on this codebase. Instead, the open source development shifted to a next generation browser built from scratch. Utilising the newly-built Gecko layout engine, this browser had a much more modular architecture than Communicator 4.0 and was therefore easier to develop with a large number of programmers. It also included an XML user interface language named XUL that allowed single development of a user interface that ran on Windows, Macintosh, and Linux. The United States Department of Justice filed an antitrust case against Microsoft in May 1998. Netscape was not a plaintiff in the case, though its executives were subpoenaed and it contributed much material to the case, including the entire contents of the 'Bad Attitude' internal discussion forum. [5] In October 1998, Netscape acquired web directory site NewHoo for the sum of $1 million, renamed it the Open Directory Project, and released its database under an open content license. [edit] Acquisition by America Online America Online (AOL) on November 24, 1998 announced it would acquire Netscape Communications in a tax-free stock-swap valued at US$4.2 billion at the time of the announcement. This merger was ridiculed by many who believed that the two corporate cultures could not possibly mesh; one of its most prominent critics was longtime Netscape developer Jamie Zawinski. [6] [7] The acquisition was seen as a way for AOL to gain a bargaining chip against Microsoft, to let it become less dependent on the Internet Explorer web browser. Others believed that AOL was interested in Netcenter, or Netscape's web properties, which drew some of the highest traffic worldwide. Eventually, the majority of Netscape's server products were spun off to form iPlanet Inc., a joint venture between AOL and Sun Microsystems. On November 14, 2000, AOL released Netscape 6, based on the Mozilla 0.6 source code. (Version number 5 was skipped.) Unfortunately, Mozilla 0.6 was far from being stable yet, and so the effect of Netscape 6 was to further drive people away from the Netscape brand. It was not until August 2001 that Netscape 6.1 appeared, based on Mozilla 0.9.2 which was significantly more robust. A year later came Netscape 7.0, based on the Mozilla 1.0 core. [edit] Disbanding of Netscape Netscape logo used from 1994 until 2002After the Microsoft antitrust case found that Microsoft held and had abused monopoly power, AOL filed suit against it for damages. [8] This suit was settled in May 2001 when Microsoft paid US $750 million to AOL and agreed to share some technologies, including granting AOL a license to use and distribute Internet Explorer royalty-free for seven years. [9] [10]. This was considered to be the "death knell for Netscape." On July 15, 2003, Time Warner (formerly AOL Time Warner) disbanded Netscape. Most of the programmers were laid-off, and the Netscape logo was removed from the building. However, the Netscape 7.2 web browser (developed in-house rather than with Netscape staff) was released by AOL on August 18, 2004. [11] Red Hat announced on September 30, 2004 that it had acquired large portions of the Netscape Enterprise Suite and is planning to convert them into an open source product to be bundled with Red Hat Enterprise Linux. [1]. On June 1, 2005, Red Hat released Fedora Directory Server. On October 12, 2004, the popular developer website Netscape DevEdge was shut down by AOL. DevEdge was an important resource for Internet-related technologies, maintaining definitive documentation on the Netscape browser, documentation on associated technologies like HTML and JavaScript, and popular articles written by industry and technology leaders such as Danny Goodman. Some content from DevEdge has been republished at the Mozilla website. [edit] Netscape today The current Netscape logoToday, the Netscape brand name continues to be used extensively by AOL. The Netscape Browser continues to be released under the Netscape brand name, though development of the browser has been outsourced to the Canadian company Mercurial Communications. The portal is also still active; in fact, it was given a brand new design on February 17, 2005 to match the look and feel of the Netscape 8 browser, and in June 2006, the portal was redesigned yet again as a social-news site similar to Digg. Most notably, AOL now markets a discount ISP service under the Netscape brand name. [edit] Browser [edit] Netscape Classic releases [edit] Netscape Navigator (versions 1.0?4.08) Netscape Navigator 4.08 under WindowsMain article: Netscape Navigator Netscape Navigator was the name of Netscape's web browser from versions 1.0?4.8. The first beta release versions of the browser were released in 1994 and known as Mosaic and then Mosaic Netscape until a legal challenge from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (makers of NCSA Mosaic), which many of Netscape's founders used to develop, led to the name change to Netscape Navigator. The company's name also changed from Mosaic Communications Corporation to Netscape Communications Company. The browser was easily the most advanced available and was therefore an instant success, becoming market leader while still in beta. Netscape's feature-count and market share continued to grow rapidly after version 1.0 was released. Version 2.0 added a full mail reader called Netscape Mail, thus transforming Netscape from a mere web browser to an Internet suite. During this period, both the browser and the suite were known as Netscape Navigator. Around the same time, AOL started bundling their software with Microsoft's Internet Explorer. Version 3.0 of Netscape (the first beta was codenamed "Atlas") was the first to face any serious competition in the form of Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0. Netscape, however, easily held off Microsoft's challenge and remained the number one browser for the time being. Version 3.0 was also available in a "Gold" version which featured a WYSIWYG HTML editor (later added to Netscape Communicator as a standard feature). Netscape 3.0 introduced many new features such as new plugins, background colors for tables, the archive attribute and the applet element. Netscape Navigator 3 was a huge success, and the undisputed Web Browser giant in its time. The latest version is 3.04. [edit] Netscape Communicator (versions 4.0?4.8) Netscape Communicator 4.77 under WindowsMain article: Netscape Communicator Netscape 4 addressed the problem of Netscape Navigator being used as both the name of the suite and the browser contained within it by renaming the suite to Netscape Communicator. After releasing 5 preview releases from 1996 - 1997, Netscape Corp. released the final version of Netscape Communicator in June 1997. This new version, more or less based on Netscape Navigator 3 Code, updated and added new features (such as support of certain CSS1 elements, minimal dynamic font support and the proprietary object element). The new suite was successful, despite increasing competition from Internet Explorer 4.0 (which had, at that time, a far better HTML engine) and problems with the outdated browser core. The Communicator suite was made up of Netscape Navigator, Netscape Mail and Newsgroups, Netscape Address Book and Netscape Composer (an HTML editor). In October 1998 version 4.5 of Netscape Communicator was released. This new version featured various functionality improvements, especially in the Mail/News component, but did not update the browser core (which, in its functionality, was basically identical with version 4.08). Only one month later, Netscape Communications Corporation was bought by AOL. A standalone version of Netscape Navigator was still available, but this was discontinued after version 4.08 for Windows. However, standalone versions for other operating systems such as Unix/Linux were maintained up to version 4.8. In January 1998 Netscape Communications Corporation announced that all future versions of their software would be free of charge and developed by an Open Source Community (Mozilla). Netscape Communicator 5.0 was announced (codenamed "Grommit"). But there were significant delays to the release of Netscape's next major version and Communicator therefore aged badly over the many years it was still used. As a result of this, and a more advanced support of HTML 4, CSS, DOM, and ECMAScript by Internet Explorer starting with version 4, the more up-to-date Internet Explorer 5.0 became the market leader. In November 1998 work on Netscape 5.0 was cancelled in favor of developing a completely new program from scratch. [edit] Mozilla-based releases [edit] Netscape 6 (versions 6.0?6.2.3) Netscape Navigator 6.1 under WindowsMain article: Netscape 6 In 1998, Netscape made the decision to make the Netscape browser an open-source project. A basic version of the source code was duly released. An informal group called the Mozilla Organization was formed and largely funded by Netscape (the vast majority of programmers working on the code were paid by Netscape) to co-ordinate the development of Netscape 5 (codenamed "Grommit"), which would be based on the Communicator source code. However, the aging Communicator code proved difficult to work with and the decision was taken to scrap Netscape 5 and re-write the source code. The re-written source code was in the form of the Mozilla web browser, which, with a few additions, Netscape 6 was based on. This decision meant that Netscape's next major version was severely delayed. In the meantime, Netscape was taken over by AOL who, acting under pressure from the Web Standards Project, forced its new division to release Netscape 6.0 in 2000. The suite again consisted of Netscape Navigator and the other Communicator components, with the addition of a built-in AOL Instant Messenger client, Netscape Instant Messenger. However, it was clear that Netscape 6 was not yet ready for release and it flopped badly. It was based on Mozilla 0.6, which was not ready to be used by the general public yet due to many serious bugs that would cause it to crash often or render web pages slowly. Later versions of Netscape 6 were much improved (especially 6.2.x was regarded as a good release), but the browser still struggled to make an impact on a disappointed community. [edit] Netscape (versions 7.0?7.2) Netscape 7.2 under WindowsMain article: Netscape (web browser) For the version 7 series (codenamed "Mach V"), the suite became simply known as Netscape, the name everyone else had been calling it for years. The browser inside continued to be known as Netscape Navigator. Netscape 7.0 (based on Mozilla 1.0.1) was released in August 2002 was a direct continuation of Netscape 6 with very similar components. It picked up a few users, but was still very much a minority browser, one of the problems being that Mozilla itself was a worthy adversary. In addition, AOL had decided to deactivate Mozilla's popup-blocker functionality in Netscape 7.0, which created an outrage in the community. AOL learned the lesson for Netscape 7.01 and allowed Netscape to reinstate the popup-blocker. Netscape also introduced a new AOL-free-version (without the usual AOL addons) of the browser suite. Netscape 7.1 (codenamed "Buffy" and based on Mozilla 1.4) was released in June 2003. In 2003, AOL closed down its Netscape division and laid-off or re-assigned all of Netscape's employees. continued, however, as the independent Mozilla Foundation, taking on many of Netscape's ex-employees. AOL continued to develop Netscape in-house, but, due to there being no staff committed to it, improvements were minimal. One year later, in August 2004, the last version based on Mozilla was released: Netscape 7.2, based on Mozilla 1.7.2. [edit] Mozilla Firefox-based releases [edit] Netscape Browser (version 8.0+) Netscape Browser 8.0 under WindowsMain article: Netscape Browser AOL's latest Netscape releases, starting in 2005, are known as Netscape Browser. AOL chose to base Netscape Browser on the relatively successful Mozilla Firefox, a re-written version of Mozilla produced by the Mozilla Foundation. This release is not a full Internet suite as before, but is solely a web browser. Other controversial decisions include the browser's being made only for Microsoft Windows (as of now) and its featuring both the Gecko rendering engine of previous releases and the Trident engine used in Internet Explorer. AOL's acquisition of Netscape years ago made it less of a surprise when the company laid off the Netscape team and outsourced development to Mercurial Communications. [edit] Release history Netscape Navigator 1.0 ? December 15, 1994 Netscape Navigator 1.1 Netscape Navigator 1.22 Netscape Navigator 2.0 ? September 18, 1995 Netscape Navigator 2.01 Netscape Navigator 2.02 Netscape Navigator 3.0 ? August 19, 1996 Netscape Navigator 3.01 Netscape Navigator 3.02 Netscape Navigator 3.03 Netscape Navigator 3.04 ? October 4, 1997 Netscape Communicator/Navigator 4.0 ? June 1997 Netscape Communicator/Navigator 4.01 Netscape Communicator/Navigator 4.02 Netscape Communicator/Navigator 4.03 Netscape Communicator/Navigator 4.04 Netscape Communicator/Navigator 4.05 Netscape Communicator/Navigator 4.06 ? August 17, 1998 Netscape Communicator/Navigator 4.07 Netscape Communicator/Navigator 4.08 ? November 9, 1998 (last release for 16-bit Windows and 68k Macs) Netscape Communicator 4.5 ? October 19, 1998 Netscape Communicator 4.61 ? June 14, 1999 Netscape Communicator 4.7 ? September 30, 1999 Netscape Communicator 4.71 Netscape Communicator 4.72 Netscape Communicator 4.73 Netscape Communicator 4.74 Netscape Communicator 4.75 Netscape Communicator 4.76 Netscape Communicator 4.77 Netscape Communicator 4.78 Netscape Communicator 4.79 ? 2001 Netscape Communicator 4.8 ? August 22, 2002 Netscape 6.0 ? November 14, 2000 (based on Mozilla 0.7) Netscape 6.01 ? February 9, 2001(based on Mozilla 0.7) Netscape 6.1 ? August 8, 2001 (based on Mozilla Netscape 6.2 ? October 30, 2001 (based on Mozilla Netscape 6.2.1 (based on Mozilla Netscape 6.2.2 (based on Mozilla Netscape 6.2.3 ? May 15, 20

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